We under the roof of Hahnemann Charitable Mission Society (HCMS), started working towards rural development. We are professionally managed ISO certified organization with team of experts in the area of crop production, plant protection, Fertilizers and animal feed supplements with cost effective solutions, post harvest handling, technology transfer & extension, business development and information technology which ultimately enhances livelihood for agricultural rural people and growers. We are promoters of medicinal & aromatic plants cultivation. In India we provide knowledge and innovative technologies to the farmers for scientific cultivation of medicinal and aromatic plants. We are working since 1996 with our presence throughout India and abroad..
The modernization in agriculture increased, with the use of new modified inputs as use of mechanization, organic methods, medicinal farming and new instruments. The farmer, agri businessperson and agri entrepreneur need some advice to set up their dream. Here we are Hahnemann charitable mission society, Jaipur provide all essential guidance for solving your issues regarding modern or organic agriculture.
More than 40 Consultancies are provided to International, National and local level Agri‐Organizations and individuals on around 2500 acres of Land. Hahnemann charitable mission society is an ISO certified NGO providing consultancy services in the agriculture sector. We have been successfully working since 1996, for the large‐scale development of organic, aromatic, medicinal and horticulture as well as oil seed plants, in all over India through farmers.
Our comprehensive Consultancy services varies from a single grower to cooperatives and corporate to government /research universities and institutions to rural, tribal & urban communities. All of them have specific needs, goals and objectives. We take up the responsibility of fulfilling institutions their needs through best services and cared them for within the stipulated period all over the world:
Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Tamilnadu, West Bengal, Karnataka, Gujarat, Tamilnadu, Uttar Pradesh, Delhi, Jharkhand, Nepal, Bangladesh, Mauritius, Nigeria, Germany, Pakistan, China, Bolivia, Germany, Belgium, Indonesia, Sweden, Yugoslavia.
|Sr. No.||Service we provide||Sr. No.||Service we provide|
|1||Land Development||16||Modern Agriculture & Value Chain Development|
|2||Supply of Non-GM Seed||17||Setup of Processing Unit|
|3||Organic Certification Management||18||Cultivation of Different crops|
|4||Project Planning & Development||19||Project Management and Turnkey Implementation|
|5||Buy Back Facility||20||Product Formula Development|
|6||Formation of Farmer Producer Organization||21||Product Packaging|
|7||Good Agriculture Practices (GAP)||22||Fertilizer Making Licensing|
|8||Good Harvesting & Storage Practices||23||Raw Material Supply|
|9||Nutrient Management||24||Insect Pest Management|
|10||Water Management||25||Green House Cultivation|
|11||Animal Husbandry||26||Dairy Unit Setup|
|12||Training- Cultivation||27||Certification Courses in 16 different agriculture courses|
|13||Training- Processing||28||Food Processing Training|
|14||Herbal Juice Processing Training||29||Herbal Cosmetics Processing Training|
|15||Packaging, Labeling & brand creation||30||Third Party Manufacturing|
- AGRICULTURE LAND DEVELOPMENT-
Land development is one of the most important steps in any kind of agriculture. In land development some steps should be taken before selection of crop like- Soil testing, Water Testing, Feasibility report, Crop Selection, Environmental factors etc. Agricultural land refers to the share of land area that is arable, under permanent crops, and under permanent pastures. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Land under permanent crops is land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee, and rubber. This category includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber. Permanent pasture is land used for five or more years for forage, including natural and cultivated crops.
- SUPPLY OF NON GENETIC MODIFIED PLANTING MATERIAL-
We provide planting material for each crop like seeds, seedlings, tubers, rhizomes etc for planting of all types of agriculture crops. (Traditional as well as Medicinal & Aromatic crops).
Non-GMO seeds are cultivated through pollination. They can be bred two different ways: as hybrid seeds or as open-pollinated seeds. The term “hybrid” refers to a plant variety developed through a specific, carefully controlled cross-pollination of two different parent plants to produce new traits that can’t be created by inbreeding two of the same plants. Hybrid varieties—also called F1 or “first-filial” hybrids—produce seeds that are not “true to type,” meaning that they do not conform to the known characteristics of a given plant variety.
Open-pollinated seeds, by contrast, are produced from random pollination by wind, birds, insects, or other natural means. Gardeners who save seeds from open-pollinated plants can keep them genetically pure by isolating the plants from the pollen of other plants. They then save seeds from those plants to grow out the following season, confident that the seeds will possess the same characteristics as the parent plant, or grow “true to type.”
- ORGANIC CERTIFICATION MANAGEMENT-
Organic certification is a certification process for producers of organic food and other organic agricultural products. In general, any business directly involved in food production can be certified, including seed suppliers, farmers, food processors and retailers.
India Organic Certification is a label given to organic products after validation, which ensures that the product or raw materials used in the product were grown through organic farming – without any chemical fertilizers, pesticides, or induced hormones. A trademark – “India Organic” will be granted on the basis of compliance with the National Standards for Organic Production (NSOP). Communicating the genuineness as well as the origin of the product, this trademark will be owned by the Government of India. The National Standards for Organic Products was established in 2000 which ensures the authenticity of the organic product. The certification is issued by testing centers accredited by the Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA), under the National Program for Organic Production of the Government of India. In spite of the formation of the certification board in 2000, the scheme came into existence in the year 2002 which provides this mark to the real organics.
- PROJECT PLANNING & DEVELOPMENT
Inclusive project planning for developmental and commercial projects along with technical support services to agriculture, agri business, and food processing industries. Experience includes preparation of project feasibility studies, Detailed Project Reports, sector development plans.
The most difficult single problem confronting society is the implementation of development initiatives. Much of this can be traced to poor project preparation and planning and/or bad project selection and/or poor implementation. Unless projects are carefully prepared and appraised, inefficient or even wasteful expenditure is almost sure to result. If development is pictured as a progression with many dimensions – spatial, technical, social, cultural, financial, environmental and economic – projects can be seen as an undertaking to enhance development through change. When all dimensions are attended to in a thorough and well considered manner projects become focussed and driven entities to promote development over time. A project can also be observed with at least a conceptual boundary around, ie. containing the physical structures, financial flows, beneficiaries and participants. An observer can thus clearly say “this is the project”. A project furthermore has a start and finish.
- CROP BUY BACK FACILITIES-
Contract farming can be defined as agricultural production carried out according to an agreement between a buyer and farmers, which establishes conditions for the production and marketing of a farm product or products. Typically, the farmer agrees to provide agreed quantities of a specific agricultural product. These should meet the quality standards of the purchaser and be supplied at the time determined by the purchaser. In turn, the buyer commits to purchase the product and, in some cases, to support production through, for example, the supply of farm inputs, land preparation and the provision of technical advice.
Contract farming is looking towards the benefits both for the farm-producers as well as to the agro-processing firms. Producer/farmer
- Makes small scale farming competitive – small farmers can access technology, credit, marketing channels and information while lowering transaction costs
- Assured market for their produce at their doorsteps, reducing marketing and transaction costs
- It reduces the risk of production, price and marketing costs.
Contract farming can open up new markets which would otherwise be unavailable to small farmers.
- It also ensures higher production of better quality, financial support in cash and /or kind and technical guidance to the farmers.
- In case of agri-processing level, it ensures consistent supply of agricultural produce with quality, at right time and lesser cost.
- Optimally utilize their installed capacity, infrastructure and manpower, and respond to food safety and quality concerns of the consumers.
- Make direct private investment in agricultural activities.
- The price fixation is done by the negotiation between the producers and firms.
- The farmers enter into contract production with an assured price under term and conditions.
For the ease of farmer we provide buy back facilities or provide a direct linkage between buyer and seller. At present we provide buy back agreement facility for following medicinal and aromatic crops. Eg. Tulsi, Kali Haldi, Palmarosa, Kalihari, Kalmegh, Sarpagandha, Ashwagandha, Amla, Chia Seed, Safed Musali, Lemon Grass, Gudmar, Stevia, Shatavari, Moringa, Aloevera etc.
- FARMER PRODUCER ORGANISATION FORMATION-
Farmer Producer Organisations
How farmers can join FPO
A group of farmers who are actually involved in agricultural production and have a common interest in pursuing agribusiness activities can form a group in a village or a cluster of villages and apply for a registration of a Farmer Producer Company under the relevant Companies Act.
What Benefits farmers will get by forming FPO
- As a cohesive group, farmers as members of the FPO will have better bargaining power which can be leveraged to buy or sell commodities at competitive prices.
- Aggregation of agricultural produce for better marketing opportunities. Trading in bulk saves farmers on associated expenditures like processing, storage, transportation etc.
- FPOs may take up activities for value addition like sorting/grading, packaging, basic processing etc. which fetch a higher price for the farmers’ produce.
- FPO formation facilitates utilization of pre and post harvest infrastructure like green houses, mechanized farming, cold storage, agri-processing etc.
- FPO can expand its business activities by opening of input stores, custom centres etc. through which its member farmers can get subsidised inputs and services.
Contact details for applying for FPOs
Generally, FPOs are promoted under various Central Sector Schemes operated in the States by the Departments of Agriculture, Cooperation & Farmers Welfare. Farmers interested in forming an FPO may contact the Director of the concerned Department/Small Farmer Agri-business Consortium for further information (Email ID : firstname.lastname@example.org ).
SFAC is promoting 145 FPOs in 11 states of the country for value development of pulses and millets under NFSM. As per criteria of SFAC, an amount of Rs. 62.75 lakhs is provided per FPO for formulation, registration, training, capacity building, establishment of mini dal-mill & support to handling & market
We are experienced in formation of FPOs at all levels; we can provide consultancies for registration, formation and all related activities.
- GOOD AGRICULTURE PRACTICES-
Good Agricultural Practices are “practices that address environmental, economic and social sustainability for on-farm processes, and result in safe and quality food and non-food agricultural products”(FAO COAG 2003 GAP paper)
These four ‘pillars’ of GAP (economic viability, environmental sustainability, social acceptability and food safety and quality) are included in most private and public sector standards, but the scope which they actually cover varies widely.
Objective of GAP are-
- Ensuring safety and quality of produce in the food chain
- Capturing new market advantages by modifying supply chain governance
- Improving natural resources use, workers health and working conditions, Creating new market opportunities for farmers and exporters in developing countries.
- Eliminating chances of these contaminants entering the food chain at primary production level will:
a. Help production of safe food at primary production level
b. Eliminate harmful processes in the food chain such as bio-magnification and bio-concentration (accumulation of toxic chemicals in food chains) which is detriment to both human health and environment
- Culture of Food Safety
- Optimization of human and natural resources in agriculture
- Better price realization of the produce
- Secure and strengthen livelihoods of the small and marginal farmers.
- GOOD HARVESTING/ STORAGE PRACTICES-
Harvesting and Storage is considered as the first step in the grain supply chain and is a critical operation in deciding the overall crop quality. In the developing countries, crop harvesting is performed mainly manually using hand cutting tools such as sickle, knife, scythe, cutters. Almost the entire crop is harvested using combine harvesters in the developed countries. We provide all consultancies related to this also.
Storage and distribution are important activities in the supply chain management of medical products. Various people and entities are generally responsible for handling, storage and distribution. Products may be subjected to various risks at different stages in the supply chain, i.e. during purchasing, storage, distribution, transportation, repackaging, and relabelling. Further, substandard and falsified products are a real threat to public health and safety. Consequently, it is essential to protect the supply chain against the penetration of such products.
Good Pharmaceutical Storage Practices is often accompanied by the concept of Good Distribution Practice (GDP) because both of them are included in the medical products’ management chain. In this regard just like GDPs, GSPs is also part of the Quality Management System. Precisely, GSPs represent this part which makes sure that the quality of drugs is well-preserved. This is done through monitoring and controlling a number of procedures which are closely linked to storage processes. To present this differently, GSPs could be envisioned as a compilation of measures that should be taken into consideration when it comes to the safe-keeping of pharma and medical products.
These measures aim at promising that the products will preserve their quality nature when they reach patients and their consumption will not result in unanticipated conditions. Just as stated before, every establishment which operates in the Pharma or Health industry in general and deals with storing should integrate such practices into their everyday activities. Why? Because by following good storage principles, companies will introduce the best and most endurable products at the end. Such establishments include:
- Herbal Pharma stores
- Medical stores
- Public and private pharmacies
- Health Food stores
- Stores which have the purpose to store drugs at health establishments like Public Healthcare institutions and hospitals
- MODERN AGRICULTURE & VALUE CHAIN DEVELOPMENT-
We provide all information regarding how to develop business in agri farming. The development of farm in low budget with modern equipment. How to develop land, what parameters essential like all question we solving all issues. We provide complete guidance for develop the marketing strategy of farm produce. The agriculture marketing is also a best method to develop business. Development of High Tech Nursery and Micro Propagation Units. Survey, Design, Development, Fabrication, Erection and Maintenance of Green Houses, Poly Houses, Shade Net Houses & Mist Chambers.
A value chain is a set of linked activities that work to add value to a product; it consists of actors and actions that improve a product while linking commodity producers to processors and markets. Value chains work best when their actors cooperate to produce higher-quality products and generate more income for all participants along the chain, as opposed to the simplest kinds of value chains, in which producers and buyers exchange only price information — often in an adversarial mode. Value chains differ from supply chains, which refer to logistics: the transport, storage and procedural steps for getting a product from its production site to the consumer.
- CULTIVATION OF DIFFERENT CROPS-
We provide guidance for cultivation of different crops like Medicinal plants, Horticulture plants, Exotic vegetable, floriculture and essential oils crops. Others useful setup are the development of vermicompost unit, water and land management, nursery development, green house and poly house development.
- Food Crops (Wheat, Maize, Rice, Millets and Pulses etc.)
- Cash Crops (Sugarcane, Tobacco, Cotton, Jute and Oilseeds etc.)
- Plantation Crops (Coffee, Coconut, Tea, and Rubber etc.)
- Horticulture crops (Fruits and Vegetables)
- SETUP OF PROCESSING UNIT-
We conduct extensive studies for complete development of organization and conduct extensive training, communication and workshops for farmers and professionals involved in farming and agribusiness. We provide complete training programs on farms and in the private sector, producer organizations, research institutions, government departments and rural institution.
Agro processing could be defined as set of technoeconomic activities carried out for conservation and handling of agricultural produce and to make it usable as food, feed, fibre, fuel or industrial raw material. Hence, the scope of the agro-processing industry encompasses all operations from the stage of harvest till the material reaches the end users in the desired form, packaging, quantity, quality and price. Ancient Indian scriptures contain vivid account of the post harvest and processing practices for preservation and processing of agricultural produce for food and medicinal uses.
Inadequate attention to the agro-processing sector in the past put both the producer and the consumer at a disadvantage and it also hurt the economy of the Country. Agro-processing is now regarded as the sunrise sector
of the Indian economy in view of its large potential for growth and likely socio economic impact specifically on employment and income generation. Some estimates suggest that in developed countries, up to 14 per cent of the total work force is engaged in agro-processing sector directly or indirectly. However, in India, only about 3 per cent of the work force finds employment in this sector revealing its underdeveloped state and vast untapped potential for employment. Properly developed, agro-processing sector can make India a major player at the global level for marketing and supply of processed food, feed and a wide range of other plant and animal products.
- PROJECT MANAGEMENT & TURNKEY IMPLEMENTATION-
Providing project management consultancy PMC/ project management agency to the government, multilateral agencies, and private sector. Services include project management and reporting, training and monitoring, architectural and engineering design, agri, and food technology for commercial plantations, food processing industry, warehousing, and cold chain, wholesale markets and logistics.
Project management involves decision making for the planning, organizing, coordination,
monitoring and control of a number of interrelated time bound activities. Project Manager therefore, often depends on tools and techniques that are effective enough not only for drawing-up the best possible initial plan but also capable of projecting instantaneously the impact of deviations so as to initiate necessary corrective measures. The search for an effective tool has resulted in development of a variety of techniques.
- PRODUCT FORMULA DEVELOPMENT-
We are manufacturer and seller of 50 different types of formula based products which are based on herbal formula, we can share our vast knowledge for making different product formula formulation.
We supports you in the successful development of natural health products, dietary food supplements and nutraceutical products from start to finish. Our services in this area include:
- New concept development for product innovation.
- Creative design of innovative products with efficient and appealing ingredient combinations and innovative formulations.
- Substantiation of therapeutic health claims, structure/function claims.
- Application and maintenance of product registration submissions under various organizations across the India such as FSSAI, NPOP, NOP etc.
Our experts have developed dietary supplement and functional food products in the global markets, generating hundreds of millions of dollars in sales. We apply the most up-to-date science and innovative technologies, insightful understanding of the consumer-market and success-proven processes in product development. We help our clients to increase time-to-market and investment return of new products. We know that every step of product development is interrelated, contributing to the success of product in the market. We approach product development holistically, by getting it done right the first time, saving you previous time, money, and resources from the back-and-forth practice.
- PRODUCT PACKAGING-
The herbal formulations especially tablets as Ashwgandha Tablet, Garlic Tablet, Harde Tablet, Neem Leaves Tablet, Karela (Bitter Gourd) Tablet and Triphala Tablets are high in demand. The other formulations like Triphala, Amalaki, and Haritaki tablets are also in high demand. The joint pain, arteriosclerosis, premature aging, arthritis, diabetes, asthma hypertension, laxative and headache are the ailments which can be easily cured by number of herbal tablets.
Product packing is available in many forms and shapes; we need to decide the better product design in competitive market.
- FERTILIZER MAKING/LICENCING-
We provide our vast knowledge related to bio fertilizer manufacturing process and management, licensing of fertilizer under FCO-1985 act, Govt of India. The Govt. of India has entrusted the enforcement of Fertilizer (Control) under 1985 to the State Government. In this regard the govt. of Punjab while exercising the powers given by govt. of India has notified the officers of Department of Agriculture, Punjab as ENFORCEMENT AUTHORITIES. To ensure that supply of good quality fertilizers to the farmers, strict check is exercised over the quality of fertilizers in the State, under fertilizer Control Order, 1985. All the Agricultural Development Officers (B.Sc.Agri.)/Agricultural Officers, Chief Agricultural Officers. Joint Director of Agriculture (Admn. Wing) have been declared Fertilizer Inspectors under FCO 1985 to check stocks of fertilizers and draw samples in their respective jurisdiction large number of fertilizers samples are taken every year from the stocks of fertilizers dealers, especially of those fertilizers which are more prone to adulteration i.e. DAP, SSP Complex fertilizers, Zinc-Sulphate and Ferrous Sulphate etc. Quality control campaigns are also organised in the State during peak consumption period of Kharif and Rabi seasons. There are two Fertilizer Quality Control Laboratories situated at Ludhiana and Faridkot with analyzing capacity 2000 and 1500 samples per annum respectively. The legal as well as Administrative action is being taken against the defaulters whose samples are declared Non-Standard.
- RAW MATERIAL SUPPLY-
Raw material is important constraint in processing or manufacturing of any type of agriculture product. We provide consultancy for proper management of raw material need, source, type and other related issues of Herbal Juices, Capsules, Powders, Candy etc. Material use of agricultural raw materials as renewable resources is gaining increasing importance in industrial production. Seasonal availability as well as variations in raw material quantity and quality and of market prices need to be considered in supply planning. This research depicts the planning problem of a processor of agricultural raw materials and illustrates it with data on the industrial use of linseed oil, which is a promising raw material for the production of new polymers. A two-stage stochastic program provides decision support and is applied to the example. The approach can be used for a variety of planning problems concerning the supply of agricultural raw materials.
- FOOD PROCESSING TRAINING
Food processing is the transformation of agricultural products into food, or of one form of food into other forms. Food processing includes many forms of processing foods, from grinding grain to make raw flour to home cooking to complex industrial methods used to make convenience foods. Primary food processing is necessary to make most foods edible, and secondary food processing turns the ingredients into familiar foods, such as bread. Tertiary food processing has been criticized for promoting over nutrition and obesity, containing too much sugar and salt, too little fiber, and otherwise being unhealthful in respect to dietary needs of humans and farm animals.
As the global demand for processed food products is rising, there is a necessity to manage and harness the great untapped potential of the global market. According to reports, total food production in India is expected to double in the coming 10 years with the country’s domestic food market is expected to reach US$ 258 billion by 2015. Heavy losses are incurred by the industry due to the lack of proper infrastructure and trained professionals, with such a great potential and dramatic expected increase in the food market it is essential to consider the adequate availability of trained professionals with the techniques of food processing and preservation.
- HERBAL COSMETICS PROCESSING TRAINING
The concept of beauty and cosmetics dates back to ancient mankind and civilization. Generally herbal cosmetics are also referred to as natural cosmetics. Herbal cosmetics are formulated, using different cosmetic ingredients to form the base in which one or more herbal ingredients are used to cure various skin ailments. Plants are highly used for development of new drug products for cosmeceuticals and pharmaceutical applications. Herbal cosmetics are the products in which herbs are used in crude or extract form All human being have urge to look beautiful. It is because of this reason that they have been using different types of materials from time immemorial. In early period cosmetics were associated with religious practices. It is almost true for all old civilizations like Indian, Chinese, and Egyptian & Greek. Ubtan with flour, turmeric and vegetables oil before marriage is still practiced in India. Kum Kum is still being applied by women. During the early period, all cosmetics items were made in the home. Natural materials like aromatic materials, spices, herbs, resins, dyes, fats, oils, and the natives of different counties used perfumes. The herbal products/ drugs are derived from vegetable sources from various parts of the plants like root, leaf; flower fruit extrude or plant as a whole. There are three kinds of ingredients used in herbal products 1. Herbal 2. Mineral and 3. Animal
- HERBAL JUICE PROCESSING TRAINING
Herbal Juice is a drink made from the extraction or pressing of the natural liquid contained in fruit and vegetables. It can also refer to liquids that are flavored with concentrate or other biological food sources, such as seafood, such as clam juice. Juice is commonly consumed as a beverage or used as an ingredient or flavoring in foods or other beverages, as for smoothies. Juice emerged as a popular beverage choice after the development of pasteurization methods enabled its preservation without using fermentation (which is used in wine production).
- THIRD PARTY MANUFACTURING
With success to meet millions of customer satisfaction for their good health for over two decades we counted among the leading manufacturer and supplier of all kinds of herbal juices, powders, cosmetics etc. We are engaged as third party manufacturing and catering our knowledge to the world. Third Party Manufacturing term is basically used when a marketing company get manufactured their product with own brand name from other manufacturers. In the current time, it is a very popular strategy among all the marketing companies. Even, leading ethical pharma companies having their own manufacturing plants are getting their products manufactured through Third Party Manufacturing. Third party manufacturer, Contract manufacturer, these have the same meaning.
- PACKAGING, LABELING & BRAND CREATION
Product-mix is a part of marketing-mix. While understanding the concept of marketing-mix, we have already studied and understood as if what product-mix means and what are the variables of product-mix namely, product-line and product range, product design, product package, product quality, product labelling, product branding, after-sales services and grantees and so on.
Almost every concern wants to name its products. These names given are brand names. Branding plays more role than a mere name. It is because; brands name is quite different from ordinary name.
A brand is a symbol, a mark, a name that acts as a means of communication which brings about an identity of a given product. Brand is product image, brand is quality of product; brand is value; it is personality.
It is nothing but naming the product; and naming product is like naming a child. Parents know that the success and happiness of their children is primarily dependent on the development of their character, intelligence and capacity and not on their name. But they, nonetheless, take care in naming their children for the identification.
- TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER & DEVELOPMENT
Technology transfer is defined as a process for conceiving of a new application for an existing technology. It is also defined as a process for converting research into economic development. The term technology transfer is also used to mean licensing intellectual property to a manufacturer for production in a product, or reducing an idea to practice in a prototype, or even the process of recording concepts of technology know-how in a professional paper or patent application. The noun technology is simultaneously used to mean concepts, descriptions, components, processes and products. People use the verb transfer to mean moving from one point to another.
Successful technology transfer means that it is necessary to a broad view of “Technology” to mean not only machines and equipment, but also the skills, abilities, knowledge, systems and processes necessary to make things happen. Thus technologies are meant to be total systems that include know-how, procedures, goods and services, as well as organizational and operational measures.
A “technology transfer” is, in reality, a structural process of learning. The key components of a transfer can be identified as knowledge derived from real-world experience together with human expertise capable of transforming that knowledge into action. Successful technology transfer requires inputs such as coordination between technology developers and users; a facilitative environment that is supportive of entrepreneurship; and networks and collaborations that provide referral links for information, finance and other pertinent resources.